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The 19th issue of Uluslararası Suçlar ve Tarih / International Crimes and History (UST/ICH) consists of six articles, one review essay, and one book review.

The first article in this issue is Dikran M. Zenginkuzucu’s “Filistin Devleti’nin Başvurusu Bağlamında Uluslararası Ceza Mahkemesi’nin Yargı Yetkisi ve Birleşmiş Milletler Güvenlik Konseyi’nin Rolünün Analizi” (Jurisdiction of International Criminal Court in the Context of the Referral of the State of Palestine and an Analysis of the Role of United Nations Security Council). In this study, Dikran M. Zenginkuzucu addresses the Israel-Palestine conflict, which has been a cause of humanitarian, sociological and political deadlock in the Middle East for decades. One of the most significant dimensions of this conflict, which is one of the most important reasons of the chaos occurring in the Middle East impacting the world politics, and its possible resolution, is undoubtedly its legal dimension. In his study, Dikran M. Zenginkuzucu analyses the State of Palestine’s applications to the International Criminal Court for its claims about the crimes against humanity and war crimes that Israel has committed. In this context, he analyses the International Criminal Court’s jurisdiction ratione temporis, personae and materiae, and, in this framework, he examines the UN Security Council’s possible roles regarding the subject and the probable outcomes.

Access to and control of energy resources and minerals is one of the most important aspects of the political competition in the international domain. Together with the relevance of this issue for international politics, extraction of resources and the sharing of the obtained profits is also a matter of significance with respect to domestic welfare policies. In her study titled “Indigenous Peoples and Extractive Companies: The Case of the Russian Arctic,” Liubov Suliandziga addresses this subject in the context of the Russian Federation and evaluates the relations between the resource (oil, gas and mining) companies and the indigenous communities in the Russian Artic in the framework of the question of benefit-sharing. In her study, Liubov Suliandziga displays that indigenous communities in Russian Artic with rich energy and mineral resources benefit insufficiently from the profits obtained from the resources being extracted from their own soil.

The academic and political interest regarding Crimea and its indigenous people, the Crimean Tatars, is understandably increasing due to Crimea’s occupation and illegal annexation by the Russian Federation in February-March of 2014. Thusly, UST/ICH had reserved its 16th issue published in 2015 to Crimea and the Crimean Tatars. In the last five years, no solution has appeared in sight to Crimea’s occupation and illegal annexation and to the consequent difficulties that Crimean Tatars have been encountering.

The UST/ICH’s present issue includes three studies that focus on Crimea and the Crimean Tatars. The first one is Ufuk Akyol’s article titled “Kırım Ahalî Cumhuriyeti ve Kırım’da İlk Bolşevik İşgali (1917-1918)” (The Crimean People’s Republic and the First Bolshevik Invasion of Crimea (1917-1918)). This article focuses on the three-month period between 1917-1918 when Crimea was occupied by the Bolsheviks for the first time. In this article Ufuk Akyol examines the 1917-1918 Bolshevik occupation of Crimea and how Bolsheviks crashed down the young but fast developing Crimean Tatar national movement that aimed at a Crimean Tatar state.

It did not take long for various states and international organizations to react to Crimea’s occupation and illegal annexation by the Russian Federation. In his study titled “Önde Gelen Uluslararası Örgütlerin Kırım’ın Yasadışı İlhakına Tepkileri” (The Reactions of the Leading International Organizations to the Illegal Annexation of Crimea), Mustafa Kemal Öztopal presents a panorama of the responses of prominent international organizations such as the United Nations; European Union; NATO; the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe; the Shanghai Cooperation Organization; the Collective Security Treaty Organization and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation to the occupation and illegal annexation of Crimea.

The revolutionary process that took place in Ukraine between November 2013-February 2014 that is referred to as Euromaidan or the Revolution of Dignity, the subsequent occupation and illegal annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, and the eruption of the armed conflict in eastern Ukraine between the government forces and the separatists backed by the Russian Federation have led to a series of significant transformations with respect to Ukraine’s domestic and foreign policies, as well as the nation-building process in this country. During and after 2014, the large majority of the Crimean Tatars stood firm in defense of Ukraine’s territorial integrity and displayed a dedicated resistance against Russian Federation’s occupation and illegal annexation of Crimea. This led to a reshaping of the relations between the Ukrainian State and the Crimean Tatars. In his study titled “2014 Sonrasında Kırım Tatarları ve Ukrayna: Ortak Bir Düşman Karşısında Yeniden Kurulan İlişkiler” (Crimean Tatars and Ukraine After 2014: New Relations Established Against a Common Enemy), Fethi Kurtiy Şahin addresses the change and development of the relations between the Ukrainian State and the Crimean Tatars since 2014.

The sixth article in this issue is titled “Armenian Involvement in the 1925 (Ararat) and 1937 (Dersim) Kurdish Rebellions in Republican Turkey: Mapping the Origins of “Hidden Armenians”.” In this article Garabet K. Moumdjian focuses on Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun’s role in the Kurdish uprisings in the early Republican era. Although we find Moumdjian’s characterization of the tragic events of 1915 extra legem and unacceptable, his article provides hitherto unpublished Dashnak and other Armenian archival documents concerning the participation of Armenian militants in the Ağrı and Dersim uprisings which took place during 1930s. We believe that the documents published therein would help fill an existing gap in the literature concerning this point, since primary documents published from the Dashnaktsutyun archives and excerpts from the memoirs of the key figures of the Dashnak committee leaves no doubt as to the participation

of the Dashnak and other Armenian elements in the Kurdish uprisings of 1930s. We trust that this article will also reflect on the current state of affairs of Armenian-Kurdish relations.

Jeremy Salt in his study titled “Review Essay: Reinforcing an Unbalanced Narrative” (İnceleme: Dengelenmemiş Bir Anlatıyı Takviye Etmek) presents a review of Yiğit Akın’s book titled “When the War Came Home. The Ottomans’ Great War and the Devastation of an Empire” published in 2018 by Stanford University Press.

The last piece in this issue of UST / ICH is the book review titled “Ethnic Cleansing of Turks in Bulgaria” penned by Cengiz Haksöz. Cengiz Haksöz in this piece reviews Tomasz Kamusella’s book titled “Ethnic Cleansing During the Cold War: The Forgotten 1989 Expulsion of Turks from Communist Bulgaria” that will be published by Routledge in 2019.